Functional classification is the "process by which streets and highways are grouped into classes, or systems, according to the character of service they are intended to provide." In basic terms, a road can be functionally classified as:
Circumstances in which a road's functional classification is taken into account include:
In Alaska, Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) funds can be used on any public roadway (regardless of the road's functional classification). Road ownership and the state assigned federal functional classification determine which roadways are eligible for the following programs:
The state assigned federal functional classification is one of many factors that are considered when evaluating projects for Statewide Transportation Improvement Program (STIP) funding. A road's functional classification also affects the amount of local match a community may be responsible for when a project is being funded under the STIP. For more information about the STIP and funding, please visit ADOT&PF's STIP website at: dot.alaska.gov/stwdplng/cip/stip/
Note: The functional classification evaluation process does not consider project funding needs as a basis for determining a road's classification.
A "public road" is any road under the jurisdiction of and maintained by a public authority and "open to public travel." This could range from a logging road to a multi-lane freeway. "Open to public travel" means that the road is available, except during scheduled periods (including seasonal closures), extreme weather, or emergency conditions; passable by standard passenger cars; and open to the general public for use without restrictive gates, prohibitive signs, or regulation other than restrictions based on size, weight, or class of registration.
For all federally-funded projects, the ADOT&PF assigned functional classification is used as the basis for determining design standards.
Has ADOT&PF been using supplemental state functional classification guidelines in addition to FHWA's Functional Classification Guidelines manual?
Yes, the following ADOT&PF supplemental guidelines were approved during the 1992-93 statewide functional classification update:
(Note: A community includes any city, village, or census designated place as defined by the Census Bureau.)
The same basic functional systems apply in both rural and urban areas. The specific functional classifications and the classification process are somewhat different for rural vs. urban areas due to the differences in land use, travel patterns, traffic volume, and road density.
For both rural and urban areas, the basic functional systems are: Arterial, Collector, and Local. The Arterial and Collector functional systems are further stratified as follows:
|Rural Areas||Federal-Aid Urban Areas
(Urbanized & Small Urban)
|Other Freeways & Expressways|
|Other Princpal Arterial||Other Princpal Arterial|
|Minor Arterial||Minor Arterial|
|Local Road||Local Street|
For more detailed information, refer to FHWA’s Functional Classification Guidelines manual.
The Census Bureau and FHWA have slightly different definitions for the term Urban Area. The Census Bureau uses the term Urban Area to refer to the Urbanized Areas and Urban Clusters designated by the Census Bureau. FHWA uses the term Federal-Aid Urban Area to refer to the "adjusted" or "smoothed" Urbanized Areas and Small Urban Areas that are used for transportation planning purposes. Federal-Aid Urban Areas are based on the Census designated Urban Areas. FHWA allows the responsible state and local officials, in cooperation with each other and subject to approval by the Secretary, to "adjust" or "smooth" the Census designated Urban Area boundaries outward to delineate the Federal-Aid Urban Area boundaries. FHWA requires state transportation departments to update their Federal-Aid Urban Areas based on the Census Bureau's decennial census data.
The "adjusting" or "smoothing" of Urbanized and Small Urban Area boundaries is a way of expanding Census defined boundaries to better reflect local conditions. Boundaries are adjusted to smooth out irregularities; maintain administrative continuity of peripheral routes; and encompass fringe areas having residential, commercial, industrial, and/or national defense significance.
For transportation planning purposes, Federal-Aid Urban Areas (i.e., Urbanized and Small Urban Areas) and Rural Areas are defined as follows:
An area with a population of 50,000 or more designated by the Census Bureau, within boundaries to be fixed (i.e., adjusted or smoothed) by responsible state and local officials in cooperation with each other and subject to approval by the Secretary. Such boundaries shall encompass, at a minimum, the entire Urbanized Area within a state as designated by the Census Bureau.
Small Urban Area:
In Alaska, a Small Urban Area is a Census Urban Cluster* with a population between 5,000 and 49,999 designated by the Census Bureau, within boundaries to be fixed (i.e., adjusted or smoothed) by responsible state and local officials in cooperation with each other and subject to approval by the Secretary. Such boundaries shall encompass, at a minimum, the entire Urban Cluster as designated by the Census Bureau. Small Urban Areas are located outside the boundaries of any Urbanized Area.
Areas outside any Small Urban Area or Urbanized area.
Based on the Census Bureau's 2000 census data, Alaska's Federal-Aid Urban Areas (i.e., Urbanized and Small Urban Areas) are as follows:
Small Urban Areas:
Moose Creek (Eielson AFB) *
*New Federal-Aid Urban Area based on the Census Bureau’s 2000 census data
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